送交者: P 于 September 14, 2004 23:34:05:[新观察/xgc.bbsindex.com]
Putin overhauls political system
MOSCOW, Russia (AP) -- President
Vladimir Putin ordered an overhaul
of Russia's political system Monday,
reacting to a three-week onslaught
of terrorism with plans for the most
extensive political shakeup since the
collapse of the Soviet Union.
The ????er KGB spy's directive for
revamping the way Russia is governed
included an end to the direct popular
election of governors and a major
rearrangment in the rules for selecting
members of parliament, already deeply
loyal to the Kremlin.
Critics charged the Russian leader was
using the bloody outcome of the Beslan
school siege to grab more power.
Putin, saying the future of the country
was at stake, called for creation of a
powerful anti-terror agency "capable of
not only dealing with terror attacks but
also working to avert them, destroy
criminals in their hideouts and, if
Some 430 people have been killed in
terror attacks in Russia over the last
three weeks, including 330 people in the
gruesome climax of the school siege in
Beslan in southern Russia.
More than half the dead at the school
were children. Ninety people died when
suspected Chechen women suicide
bombers blew up two Russian airliners in
flight. A woman suicide bomber killed
nine others near a subway station in
Curiously, however, the Russian leader's
proposals focused largely on electoral
changes. Putin said he would propose
legislation abolishing the election of local
governors by popular vote. Instead they
would be nominated by the president and
confirmed by local legislatures. (Re????s
He said the change was needed to
streamline and strengthen the ????utive
branch to better combat terror.
Putin also asked for a revision of the
method by which Russians elect their parliament. The entire 450 seats would be
chosen from candidates on party lists.
At present about half are chosen that way, meaning many candidates can win
seats while representing no party. The current rules also allowed a candidate to
win a place in the legislature even if representing a party that garnered too few
seats as an organization to win representation.
Critics warned that Putin's reliance on central control could weaken the nation
further separating those in power from their constituents.
Since taking office in 1999, Putin has constantly worked to rein in the governors.
He has tossed them out of Russia's upper house of parliament, appointing seven
regional envoys to monitor them.
"Today, all the power agencies that are supposed to fight terrorism are
subordinated directly to the president. ... It's incomprehensible why on top of
that he has to name governors," Sergei Mitrokhin, a leading member of the
liberal Yabloko faction, told Russia's Ekho Moskvy radio. "It shows that the
president doesn't know what to do, he's at a loss."
Sergei Markov, a political analyst with close ties to the Kremlin, said the
president's move against the governors could help curb corruption that has
flourished in some regions.
"At the same time, it means ... a lowering of (their) general political authority
and a serious lowering of political pluralism," Markov told Ekho Moskvy.
Vladimir Ryzhkov, one of the few opposition deputies in the State Duma,
scorned the president's political proposals and warned that the next election
would produce a Duma of "marionette party lists and (that) won't enjoy any
Russians, however, feel that the elected governors and legislators are even more
corrupt than Communist administrators in Soviet times. They also have
traditionally clamored for a firm hand to restore order and now want action
against terrorism, often telling journalists terrorist attacks would never have
happened under the late dictator Stalin.
Putin also said official corruption had resulted in terrorists getting official travel
and residence documents "leading to grave consequences." Putin named one of
his closest confidants, Cabinet chief of staff Dmitry Kozak, to represent him in
the southern district that includes the Caucasus, which he called "a key strategic
region for Russia" and "a victim of terrorism and also a springboard for it."
He also proposed a new structure called the Public Chamber that he said would
strengthen public oversight of the government and the actions of law
The Russian president, who in 1999 as Russia's prime minister ordered troops
back into Chechnya after apartment bombings in Moscow blamed on Chechens,
made the new proposals Monday to Cabinet members and security officials
convened in special session.